And which there is direct evidence that they, in fact, do in some manner (13, 20, 44).
For example, there has been recent intense differential selection for genes that code for the NRG–ERBB4 pathway, a pathways which is involved in for neural development and which is associated with various psychiatric phenotypes (44).
When the Human Genome Project states that “DNA studies do not indicate that separate classifiable subspecies (races) exist within modern human,” they are talking about biological taxonomic classifications and saying that there are no population specific genes that would warrant classifying various populations as subspecies. According to Lewontin (1972), RISC means that racial classification are of “virtually no genetic or taxonomic [superfamily to subspecies] significance.” The scientific community has since rejected the notion that race, whether delineated by continental, sub-continental, or regional ancestry (lumpers and splitters), is of no such significance. (The root of “race” is “ancestry,” word games about “lactose intolerant races” notwithstanding).
The RISC hypothesis has been falsified and Lewontin’s claim about race is now know as Lewontin’s fallacy.
None of the above has stopped many (every other social “scientist”) from asserting that RISC is, nonetheless, true.
Often, a sleight of hand is pulled and, while the pretense that race is of “no genetic or taxonomic significance” is maintained, RISC is redefined to mean that racial classifications do not represent subspecies; some go so far as to baldly claim that “the social construction of race,” now redefined to mean the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomic status of race, contradicts the biogenetic concept of race (e.g. (It’s worth noting that in many parts of the world,, the race concept has wide currency; see: Lieberman et al., 2004.
This is not to say that yet undiscovered (or possibly already discovered but rarely used) environmental manipulation of forms of intervention ..
Given that, let me clarify: When it comes to the hereditarian hypothesis, we are not discussing the philosophy of biology — I discuss some aspects of that here — we are discussing the etiology of differences between socially identifiable ethnoracial groups.The race concept in six regions: variation without consensus).To emphasize again, with regards to the Hereditarian hypothesis and the question of mean differences between socially classified subpopultions, whether or not there are human subspecies and whether everyone fits neatly into some grouping is immaterial.With regards to the questions of evolved ancestral differences, Rowe (2005), Rushton and Jensen (2005), Murray (2005), Hunt and Carlson (2007), and Lee (2009) have already discussed the proper tests that would provide dispositive results: admixture studies.Such studies, which are now commonly done (see: Winkler et al., (2010), Admixture Mapping Comes of Age) to locate the origins of medical disparities would, if properly done, end this debate.